Islam, the Quran, and the Five Pillars: Crash Course World History #13

In which John Green teaches you the history of Islam, including the revelation of the Qu’ran to Muhammad, the five pillars of Islam, how the Islamic empire got its start, the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and more. Learn about hadiths, Abu Bakr, and whether the Umma has anything to do with Uma Thurman (spoiler alert: it doesn’t). Also, learn a little about the split between Sunni and Shia Muslims, and how to tell if this year’s Ramadan is going to be difficult for your Muslim friends. Let’s try to keep the flame wars out of this reasoned discussion.

To talk about islam, which like christianity mediterranean but unlike christianity and the west. for instance, you probably know mr. green mr. green why do you think people did you just ask an interesting non-annoying know about early islamic history because we because we don’t learn about it, because of christianity in europe, when in fact our so in less than 200 years

Islam went from organizing principal of one of the largest empires in the world. a 40-ish guy who made his living as a caravan trader and told him to begin reciting the word of god. a couple of other people encouraged him and a few things to know about the world islam tribal. he was a member of the quraysh tribe, living in mecca and tribal ties were extremely important.

Most tribal arabs worshipped gods very similar to the and by the time of muhammad, cult statutes his hometown of mecca in this temple-like structure called the kaaba. of zoroastrianism. so the message that there surprising to muhammad as it was, for instance, to abraham. between the byzantine empire and the persian those guys were always fighting. they were at its core,

Islam is what we call a radical sought to restore abrahamic monotheism after what they perceived as straying, so too did muhammad. the one true religion, which involves the worship of, the quran also acknowledges abraham and moses the written record of the revelations muhammad the point of view of people, it is seen as the actual word of god. themes. one is strict monotheism

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And the other less fortunate than you. the quran, says of the good person the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer, these revelations also radically increased one of the reasons why mohammad’s tribal to talk more about islamic faith and practice, let’s go to the thought bubble. “there is no god but allah and muhammad is allah’s prophet”, which tries to make

Second, salat, or ritual prayer five times and late evening—which are obligatory unless third, sawm, the month-long fast during the eat or drink or smoke cigarettes during daylight hours. most fun during the winter, when days are fourth is zakat, or almsgiving, in which non-poor and lastly hajj, the pilgrimage to mecca that in their lives, provided they are healthy and

Have enough money. with its talmud, and christianity with its islam has supplementary sacred texts, chief thanks thought bubble. oh, it’s time for the open letter? an open letter to the 72 virgins. oh, but first let’s check what’s in the secret some sayings of the prophet are really well or a relative heard the prophet say something and then it ended up as a hadith.

Middle school gossip; like rachel told rebekah and the vast majority of muslims don’t treat and the idea that you go to heaven and get a terribly sourced hadith so it is my great although we tend to think of sharia as this that’s ridiculous; there are numerous competing so people who embraced this worldview were the will of god, and they became part of the umma, or community

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Of believers. being part of the umma trumped all other ties, into some trouble and brings us, at last, back to history. and it didn’t matter that muhammad himself wouldn’t shut up about how there was only quraysh tribe because they managed the pilgrimage —although come to think of it, in the end the so the quraysh forced muhammad and his followers this journey,

Also know as the hijra, is so important that it marks year 0 in the islamic calendar. also in medina, the islamic community started like a church. like, jesus never had a country to run. he was a good general and in 630, the islamic community took back mecca. and it’s because the political and religious no separate tradition of civic and religious very different from

Judaism and even from —and more importantly than separating islam so then when muhammad died in 632 ce, there was the final prophet, the revelation of the quran would but the community did need a political leader, become the fourth caliph, that initial disagreement — to ten minutes — began the divide between the and even today, sunnis muslims believe abu to sunnis,

The first four caliphs—abu bakr, rightly guided caliphs, and many of the conservative about trying to restore the islamic world abu bakr stabilized the community after muhammad’s and started the military campaigns against 116 years would allow the islamic empire to go from this to this. but like so many other great men, he proved terrible at avoiding assassination.

His predecessor’s tradition of conquest and his predecessor’s tradition of getting assassinated. which eventually led to the emergence of uthman’s over an ever-expanding islamic empire for more than a hundred years. lots of people in central and east asia, embraced and in fact, the quran says that religion wealthy empires—the byzantines and the sassanians—there

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They were relatively easy pickings because like 300 years and were super tired. also they’d been recently struck by plague. but in those early days they did pry away where various muslim dynasties would entrench but as a good as they were at making war, and certainly a lot of the people they conquered didn’t just pit people against each other, so while the islamic empire

Didn’t require successes certainly convinced a lot of people once again, john green proving super hip to the slang of today’s young’ns. not wanting to smoke, taxes on worshiping your idols lead to people not wanting to worship them anymore. short, a small group of people from an area to create one of the great empires of the and that very fact may be why people of

Western european descent remain they saved many of the classical texts that while europe was ignoring them and they paved the way for the renaissance. wasn’t arabized, most of it was so thoroughly of the world we now call the middle east without thinking of it as islamic. communities is that, in egypt, 5 times a day millions of people turn away from the pyramids and

Toward mecca. next week we’ll talk about the dark ages. crash course is produced and directed by stan the show is written by my high school history last week’s phrase of the week was “they week’s phrase of the week or suggest future also ask questions about today’s video that thank you so much for watching and as they say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome.

Transcribed from video
Islam, the Quran, and the Five Pillars: Crash Course World History #13 By CrashCourse